1223

INDEX OF SUBJECTS

References to pages. A complete List of Topics is not attempted

A

a: see Sinaiticus.

a-text: see Syrian text.

A: see Alexandrinus.

Abbreviations: of personal names, 171-3.

Ablative case: form, 248; Doric genitive-ablative, 254; Attic gen.-abl., 255 f.; name, 514; meaning, 514; rare with substantives, 514 f., with adjectives, 515 f.; with prepositions, 516 f. and ch. XIII; with verbs, 517-20 (of departure and removal 518, of ceasing and abstaining 518, of missing, lacking, despairing 518, of differing, excelling 519, of asking and hearing 519, with the partitive idea 519, attraction of relative 519 f.); after comparative, 667.

Ablaut: 1220 f.

Absolute: use of cases, 416; nominative, 459 f.; accusative, 400 f.; genitive, 512-4; positive adjective in absolute sense, 661; inf., 1092 f.; participle, 1130-2.

Abstract nouns: 152, 794.

Accent: discussion of, 226-36 (age of Greek accent 226-8, significance of, in the koinh, 228 f., signs of 229, later developments in 229 f., shortening stem-vowels 230 f., separate words 231 f., difference in sense 232 f., enclitics and proclitics 233-5, proper names 235, foreign words 235 f.); rules for accent of enclitics and proclitics, 1211.

Accidence: in the vernacular koinh , 72 f.; in the N. T., 82; part II, 376. Accumulation of prepositions: see prepositions. Accusative case: form, 248; double accusative, 257; singular in third decl., 264 f.; plural, 265 f.; like nom. in - ej , 266; singular of adjectives, 274; name, 466 f.; meaning of, 467 f.; with verbs of motion, 468f.; extent of space, 469; for time, 469-71; with transitive verbs, 471-7; cognate, 477-9; double, 479-84; with passive verbs, 484-6; adverbial, 486-8; by antiptosis, 488; by inverse attraction, 488; with the infinitive, 489 f.; acc. absolute, 490 f., 1130; with preposi- tions, 491 and ch. XIII; compared with genitive, 506-10.

Achaean: origin, 16; Achan-Doric, 17, 54, 266; Achaean-Dorian koinh , 53, 63.

Active voice: endings, 337-9; displacing future middle, 356; meaning of, 799; transitive or intransitive, 799 f., effect of prepositions, 800; variation in tenses, 800 1.; causative, 801 f.; with reflexives, 802; impersonal, 802; infinitives, 802; as passive of another verb, 802 f. Acts: 120-3. See Index of Quotations, and passim in the volume.

Adjectives: with formative suffixes, 157-60 (primitive, 157 f.; secondary, 158-60: from verbs 158, from substantives 158, from adjectives 159 f., from adverbs 160); compound, 161-9 (with inseparable

1224 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

prefixes 161 f., agglutinative or juxtapositive 168 f.); declension of adjectives, 270-6 (origin of the adjective 270 f., inflection of adjectives with one termination 271f., with two terminations 272 f., with three 273 f., the accus. singular 274, contraction in 274 f., indeclinable 275 f.); comparison of, 276-81 (positive 276, comparative 276-8, superlative 278-81); in predicate, 401; and substantive, 407; gender in, 412 f.; with vocative, 464; with genitive, 503-5; with ablative, 515 f.; with locative or instrumental, 523; with dative, 537; distinguished from adverbs, 549 f., 657; syntax of, ch. XIV, 650-75; origin of, 650; adjectival or appositional use of substantive, 651 f.; as substantive, 652-4 (any gender 652, masculine 652, feminine 652 f., neuter 654 f.); agreement with substantives, 654 f. (number 654 f., gender 655, case 655, two or more adjectives 655); attributive, 655 f.; predicate, 656 f.; personal construction, 657 f.; with cases, 658; with the inf. and clauses, 658 f.; as adverb, 659; positive, 659-61 (relative contrast 659 f., as comparative or superlative 660 f., with prepositions 661, comparison implied by h; 661, in absolute sense 661) ; comparative, 662-9 (contrast or duality 662 f., degree 663, without suffixes 663, double 663 f., without object of 664-6, followed by 666, by the ablative 666 f., by prepositions 667, displacing the superlative 667-9); superlative, 669-71 (vanishing 669, few true in N. T. 669 f., dative 670, no "Hebraistic" 671); numerals, 671-5; with inf., 1076 f.; part. originally, 1100 f.; adjectival aspects of part., 1104-10; negatives with, 1163 f.

Adverbs: with formative suffixes, 160; agglutinative compounds, 169-71; neglect of adverbs, 293; formation of, 294-7 (fixed cases 294, accus. 294 f., ablative 295, genitive 295, locative 295, instrumental 295 f., dative 296, suffixes 296, compound adverbs 297, analogy 297, comparison of adverbs 297); adverbial stems, 297-9 (substantives 298, adjectives 298, numerals 298, pronouns 298, verbs 298 f.); use of adverbs, 299-300 (manner 299, place 299 f., time 300); scope of, 300-2 (relative between adverbs and prepositions 301, adverbs and conjunctions 301 f., adverbs and intensive par ticles 302, adverbs and interjections 302); adverbial accusative, 486-8; genitive with, 505; dative with, 537 f.; syntax of, ch. XII, 544-52; special difficulties, 544; nature of, 544; narrower sense of, 544 f.; adverbs with verbs, 545 f. (commonest 545, N. T. usage 545, predicate uses 545 f., with e;cw 546, with participles 546, loose relation 546); with other adverbs, 546; with adjectives, 546 f.; with substantives, 547; as substantives, 547 f.; frequent use of, 548; as marks of style, 548 f.; distinguished from adjective, 549 f. (different meaning 549, difference in Greek and English idiom 549 f.); adverbial phrases 550-2 (incipient adverbs 550, prepositional phrases 550 f., participles 551,1109 f.); the verb, 554 f.; prepositions, 554 f.; adjective as, 659; article with, 765 f.

Adversative particles: 1187 f.

AEolic: lyric odes, 17; persistence of, 52; relation to Doric, 17, 53; influence on koinh, , 63; on the N. T., 82; and here and there, ad libitum.

AEschylus : see Index of Quotations.

Affixes: 146.

Agent: words expressing, 153 f.; da tive of, 542; with passive, 820.

Agglutinative : type of languages, 37; compounds, 163-71.

Agreement: see concord.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1225

Aktionsart: 344 f., 823 f., 828 f., 831-5, 850 f., 858 f.

Alexander the Great: 44, 49-51, 53 ff., 60-3, 66-8, 71, 239, etc.

Alexandrian: grammarians, 31; do not treat adjectives, 650; no Alexandrian dialect, 68, 91, 100, 213, 215, 227, 242.

Alexandrian type of text: 180 and passim.

Alexandrinus: 179 and passim.

Allegory: 1207.

Alliteration: 1201.

Alphabet: original Greek, 178; law enforcing Ionic alphabet, 181, 209, 222.

Alternative: pronouns, 745-50 (see distributive); questions, 736 f.

Amplification: of subject, 398-400; of predicate, 400 f.

Anabasis: passim. See Index of Quotations.

Anacoluthon: discussion of, 435-40 (suspended subject 436 f., digression 437-9, participle in 439 f., asyndeton 440); distinction from oratio variata, 440 f.; kinds of, 1203 f.

Analogy: passim.

Anaphora: 1200.

Anaphoric: see article, demonstrative, relative.

Anarthrous : attributive, 782-4; predicate, 790-6; participle, 1105 f.

Annominatio: 1201.

Antecedent: see demonstrative, relative, preposition.

Antiptosis: 488.

Antistrophe : 1200.

Antithesis: 1199 f.

Aorist: second aorist of - mi verbs, 307-11; forms of, strong and weak, second and first, 345-50; passive, 816 ff.; name, 831; Aktionsart in, 831-5 (constative 831-4, ingressive 834, effective 834 f.); indicative, 835-48 (narrative or historical tense 835 f., gnomic 836 f., relation to imperfect 837-40, relation to past perfect 840 f., relation to present 841-3, relation to present per feet 843-5, epistolary 845 f., relation to the future 846 f., in wishes 847, variation in use of tenses 847, translation of aorist into English 847 f.); subjunctive and optative, 848-55 (no time-element 848, fre quency of subj. 848-50, Aktionsart 850 f., aorist subj. in prohibi tions 851-4, aorist subj. with qu, mh, , 854, aorist opt. 854 f.); imperative, 855 f.; infinitive, 856-8; participle, 858-64 and 1112-4 (Aktionsart 858 f., .5 and aorist 859 f., antecedent action 860, simultaneous action 860 f., subsequent action 861-3, aorist participle in indirect discourse 863 f.).

Aoristic: see punctiliar, present, per fect, future.

Aphaeresis : 205 f.

Apocalypse: 101, 135 f.; solecisms in, 413-6 and passim. See Index of Quotations.

Apocrypha: passim. See Index of Quotations.

Apodosis: see 921-3 and conditional sentences, 1007-27.

Aposiopesis: 1203.

Apostrophe: use of, 244.

Appian: see Index of Quotations.

Apposition: with substantive, 368-400; partitive, 399; predicative amplifications, 401; peculiarities in, 413 ff.; to vocative, 464; genitive of, 498 f.; appositional use of substan tive, 651 f.; with ou-toj , 698-700; evkei/noj 708; appositional inf., 1078 f.

Aquila: see Index of Quotations.

Aramaic: 24; spoken by Jesus, 26-9; distinct from the Hebrew, 102; portions of the 0. T. in, 103; the vernacular of Palestine, 103 f.; Josephus' use of, in his War, 104; signs of, in the N. T., 104 f.; possible use by Mark and Matthew, 105; proper names, 214 f., 236; on prepositions, 556 f.; and passim. Arcadian; 63, 67, 82, 84, 184, passim.

1226 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Aristophanes: and the vernacular, 66. See Index of Quotations.

Aristotle: shows influence of Ionic and marks transition to Koun'7, 55, 58, 128, 146, 148-53, 168 f., 171, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Arrangement: see sentence.

Arrian: see Index of Quotations.

Article: use by Peter, 127; with vocaLive, 465 f.; as possessive, 684; with possessive, 685; with reflexive, 690; with ou-toj , 700-2; with evkei/noj , 708; origin and development of, 754 f. (a Greek contribution 754, derived from demonstrative 755); significance of, 755; method employed by, 756-8 (individuals from individuals 756, classes from classes 757, qualities from qualities 75S); varied usages of, 75S-76 (with substantives, context, gender, proper names, anaphoric 758-62, with adjectives, resumptive, adj. alone,with numerals 762-4, with participles 764 f., infinitive 765, with adverbs 765 f., with prepositional phrases 766, with single words or whole sentences 766, with genitive alone 767, nouns in predicate 767-9, distributive 769, nominative with = vocative 769, = possessive 769 f., with possessive 770, with auvto,j 770, with demonstratives 770 f., with o[loj├ pa/j [ a[paj ] 771-4, with plu,j 774 f., a;kroj├ h;misuj├ e;scatoj├ me,soj 775, with a;lloj and e[teroj 775 f., with mo,noj 776); position with attributives, 776-89 (with adjectives, normal, repetition, one with several, anarthrous substantives, partieiples 776-9, with genitive, between article and gen., after gen. without repetition, repetition with gen., absent with both, correlation of article 779-82, with adjuncts or adverbs, between article and noun, repeated, only with adjunct, only with noun, when several adjuncts occur, phrases of verbal origin, exegetical questions, anarthrous attributive 782-4, several attribii tives with kai, , same person or thing, when distinguished, treated as one, point of view, difference in number or gender, with disjunctive particle 785-9); position with pred icates, 789 f.; absence of, 790-6 (with proper names 791, with genitives 791, prepositional phrases 791 f., with both preposition and genitive 792 f., titles 793, words in pairs 793, ordinal numerals 793 f., in predicate 794, abstract words 794, qualitative force 794, only objest of kind 794-6); with inf., 1062-8; articular part., 1106-8.

Article, indefinite: ei-j as, 674; tij and ei-j , 796.

Articular infinitive: S.

Articular participle: S.

Artistic prose: see literary koinh, .

Asianism: 60, 73, 57 f., passim.

Aspirate : 191, 209; doubling of, 215; aspiration of consonants, 219; origin of the aspirate, 221 f.; variations in MSS., 223-5; transliterated Semitic words, 225; use with r and rr , 225 f.; question of auvtou/ , 226.

Assertion,

sentence of : see indirect discourse.

Asseverative particles: 1150.

Assimilation: of consonants, 215-7; rules for, 1210.

Associative case: see instrumental.

Asyndeton: 427-44; imperative in, 949.

Athens: losing its primacy in culture, 67, passim.

Attendant circumstance, participle of: see participle.

Attic: 16, 17, 20, 22, 35 f., 41-4; triumph of, 51; vernacular, the base of the koinh, , 60-2; influence on N. T., 82; Attic inscriptions show indifference to hiatus, 207; genitive-abl., 255 f . ; "Attic" declension, 260; ad libitum in the book.

Attica: 181 f.

Atticism: not part of the koinh, , 50; the

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1227

Atticistic reaction and its influence, 58-60, 73; conservative influence of, 177 f.; pronunciation, 239, passim.

Attraction of relative: inverse, 488; to genitive, 512; to ablative, 519 f.; with o[j , 714-9; o[soj , 732 f.

Attributive: adjective, 655 f.; positive article, 776-89. See participle.

Augment: discussion of, 365-8 (origin of 365, where found 365, purpose of 365, syllabic 365 f., temporal 366 f., compound verbs 367, double 367 f.); in past perfect, 1211 f.

Authorized version: influence of, on English language, 92.

B

B: see Vaticanus. b -text: see Neutral text.

Bezae, Codex: 179 f., passim.

"Biblical" Greek: 5; view of E. Hatch refuted by Deissmann, 24 f.; the new point of view, 30; N. T. not "biblical Greek," 77-9, 88, 92, 112 f., passim.

Bilingualism: in Palestine, 27-30; in Brittany, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, 30, 69, 102 f.

Blending: see cases.

Boeotian: 16, 52; influence of, 61, 63; monophthongizing, 204 f.; pronunciation, 240; passim. boustrofhdo,n : 1211.

Brachylogy: 1201, 1203.

Breathings : 221-6; use with r and rr , 225 f.; in Ionic, 240.

Breviloquence : see Brachylogy.

Brittany, bilingual: 29.

Broken continuity: see perfect and past perfect.

Byzantine Greek: literature on, 22-4, 43, 155, 179, 183, 191, 210, passim.

C

C = Codex Ephraemi: passim.

Cardinals: see numerals.

Cases: number of, 247-50 (history of the forms 247 ff., blending of caseendings, syncretism of the forms 249 f., origin of case-suffixes 250); concord in, 413-6 (adjectives 413, participles 413, the Book of Rovelation 413-6, apposition 416, abso lute 416); syntax of, ch. XI, 446-543; history of interpretation of, 446-9 (confusion 446, Bopp's contribution 446 f., modern usage 447, Green's classification 447 f., syncretisrn of the cases 448, freedom in use of 448 f.); purpose of the cases, 449 (Aristotle's usage, wordrelations); encroachment of prepo sitions on, 450-3 (reason 450, no "governing " of cases 450, not used indifferently 450 f., original use with "local" cases 451, 567, in creasing use of 451 f., distinction preserved in N. T. 453); distinctive idea in each case, 453-6 (funda mental idea 453 f., cases not yet interchangeable 454, vitality of case-idea 454, historical develop ment of the cases 454 f., method of this grammar 456); nominative, 456-66; vocative, 461-6; accusative, 466-91; genitive, 491-514; ablative, 514-20; locative, 520-5; instrumental, 525-35; dative, 535-43; functions of prepositions with, 567-71; see discussion of each prep osition in ch. XIII; adjective and substantive, 655; with adjectives, 658; 6s, attraction and incorporation, 714-9; o[stij , 728 f.; of inf., 1058-62; with inf., 1082; participle, 1119.

Causal participle: see participle and causal clauses.

Causal particles: see conjunctions and causal sentences (hypotactic).

Causal sentences: use of o[j , 724 f.; paratactic, 962 f.; with hypotactic conjunctions, 963 f .; relatives, 965 f .; dia. to, , and the infinitive, 966; par ticiple, 966, 1128; inf., 1091.

Causative verbs: 150; active, 801 f., middle, 808 f.

1228 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Cautious assertion: see final and consecutive sentences.

Chaldee (Aramaic): 211. See Aramaic.

Chiasm: 1200.

Chinese : 250.

Christian :element in N. T. Greek: chiefly lexical, 112-6; new connotations of familiar words, 115 f.

Chysostom: passim..

Circumlocutions: 330, 64S f.

Circumstantial participle: see participle.

"Classical Greek": 5, 89, passim.

Clause: paratactic, 428 f.; hypotactic, 429-31; inf. and part., 431 f.; clauses with the adjectives, 658 f.

Climax: 1200.

Collectives : see gender and number.

Colloquial: see vernacular.

Colon: 243.

Comma: origin of, 243.

Common speech: see koinh, .

Comparative: see adjectives.

Comparative clauses: with relative o[soj ,966 f.; relative with kata,├ 967; kaqo,ti , 967; w`j and its compounds, 967 ff.

Comparative grammar or philology: 8-12; the linguistic revolution, 8; sketch of Greek grammatical history, 8-10; the discovery of Sanskrit, 10; from Bopp to Brugmann, 10 ff.; importance of, 36; the original Indo-Germanic speech, 38; Greek as a "dialect" of, 39 f.; applied to N. T. word-formation, 144; system of affixes, infixes, prefixes, suffixes, 146-247,250, passim.

Comparison: of adjectives, 276-81; of adverbs, 297; syntax of, 661-9.

Complementary infinitive: see infinitive (with verbs).

Complementary participle: see participle.

Composition: compound words cornmon in the N. T., 82; compound verbs in - ew , 147 f.; discussion of composita in the N. T., 160-71 (kinds of, proper, copulative, de rivative 161, inseparable prefixes 161-3, agglutinative or by juxtaposition 163-71).

Compound sentences: order of clauses in, 425; two kinds of sentences, 425 f.; two kinds of compound or complex, 426; parataxis, 426; hypotaxis, 426 f.

Conative action: 880, 885.

Concessive: imperative as, 949; clause, 1026; participle, 1128.

Concord: and government, 397 f.; in person, 402 f.; in number, 403-9; in gender, 410-3; in case, 413-6.

Conditional sentences: apodosis of second class, 921-3; two types, 1004-7; four classes, 1007-22 (de tcrmined as fulfilled 1007-12, determined as unfulfilled 1012-6, un determined, but with possibility of determination 1016-20, remote possibility of determination 1021 f.); mixed conditions, 1022; implied conditions, 1022 f.; elliptical, 1023-6; concessive clauses, 1026 f.; other particles with eiv and eva,n , 1027; participle, 1129.

Conjugation of verb: : ch.VIII, 303-76.

Conjunctions: adverbs, 301; in subordinate clauses, 951 f.; and all through the discussion of hypotactic clauses, 950-1049; paratactic, 1177-92 (copulative: te, 1178 f., kai , 1179-83, de, 1183-5, avlla, 1185 f.; adversative: de, 1186 f., plh,n 1187, me,ntoi 1188, o[mwj 1188, eiv mh, 1188; disjunctive: h; 1188 f., ei;te and eva,nte 1189, ou;te and mh,te 1189; in ferential: a;ra 1189 f., ga,r 1190 f., ou=n 1191 f.); hypotactic, 1192 f.

Consecutive : use of o[j ; clauses, see final and consecutive.

Consonants: changes, 209-21 (origin and character of the consonants 209 f., the insertion of 210, the omission of 210 f., single or double 211-5, assimilation of 215-7, interchange and changing value of 217-9, aspiration of 219, variable final 219-21, metathesis 221).

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1229

Constative action: see aorist.

Constructio ad sensum: illustrated in, 400-424, 683 1., 1201.

Constructio praegnans: 1204. See also prepositions.

Contraction: discussion of, 203 f.; in second declension, 260 f.; in third declension, 268; in adjectives, 275 f.; in verbs, 341-3.

Contrasts: in Greek words, 175 f.; in comparison, 662 f.

Co-ordination: 443 f.; between participles, 1135 f.

Coptic: 215, 250 f., passim.

Copula: not necessary, 395 f.

Copulative conjunctions: 1177-86.

Coronis: 244.

Correlation of article: see article.

Correlative pronouns: 289 f., 298, 709 f., 732.

Crasis : 208.

Cretan dialect: passim.

Crete : early Greek culture in, 43.

Culture : variations in N. T. writers, 381.

Cynic-Stoic diatribe: 420 f., 1196 f.

Cyprus: as purveyor of Greek culture, 43; language and N. T. Gk., 82, passim.

D

D: see (Codex) Bezae. d

-text: see Western text.

Dative: form, 248 ff.; syncretism, 535; decay of dative, 535 f.; idea of, 536; with substantives, 536 f.; with adjectives, 537; with adverbs and prepositions, 537 f. and ch. XIII; with verbs, 538-43 (indirect object 538, dativus commodi vel in- commodi, 538 f., direct object 539-41, with intransitive verbs 541, possession 541, infinitive in dative 541 f., of the agent 542, because of preposition in composition 542 f.); ambiguous examples, 543; eth., 539.

Declarative clauses: 915 f., and see indirect discourse.

De-aspiration: increasing, 222 f.

Declensions : ch. VII, 246-302; his tory of the, 246 f.; first or a declension, 254-9 (Doric genitive-ablative singular 254 f., Attic genitive-ablative 255, vocative in - a 256, words in - ra and participles in - ui/a 256; retention of -- a gen.-abl. 256, double declensions 257, heteroclisis and metaplasm 257-9, inde clinable substantives 259); second or o , 259-63 (the "Attic" 260, con traction 260 f., vocative 261, heteroclisis and metaplasm 261-3, mixed declension 263, proper names 263); third decl., 263-9 (nomi native as vocative 264, accus. singular 264 f., accus. plural 265 f., peculiarities in the nominative 267 f., gen.-abl. 268, contraction 268, proper names 268 f., hetero clisis and metaplasm 269); inde clinable words, 269 f.; declension of adjectives, 270-81; numerals, 281-4; pronouns, 284-93; adverbs, 293-302.

Defective verbs: in voice, 799. See verbs.

Deictic: see demonstrative.

Deliberative: future, 875 f.; subjunc tive, 934 f.; opt., 940; questions, 1046.

Delphian: 266.

Delta: 91.

Demonstrative pronouns: inflection of, 289 f.; nature of, 693; shades of meaning, 693; o`├ h`├ to, , 693-5; o[j , 695 f.; o;de , 696 f.; ou-toj , 697-706 (the deictic use 697, the contemptuous use 697, the anaphoric use 697 f., in apposition 698-700, use of article 700 f., without article 701 f., contrast with evkei/noj 702 f., antecedent of relative 703 f., gender and number 704, adverbial uses 704 f., phrase tou/t v e;stin 705, with other pronouns 705, ellipsis 705, shift in reference 706); evkei/noj 706-9 (the purely deictic 707, the con temptuous use 707, the anaphoric 707, the remote object 707 f., emphasis 708, with apposition 705,

1230 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

with article 708, antecedent to relative 708, gender and number 70S f., independent use 709); auvto,j , 709; correlative demonstratives 709 f.); article derived from, 755; article with, 770 f.

Demosthenes: in the New Attic, 52; pronouncing Greek, 238. See Index of Quotations.

Denial and prohibition, with oi) see aorist subj. and fut. ind.

Denominative verbs: 147.

Deponents: 332 f., 811-3, 817 f.

Derivation: derivative verbs, 147-50.

Design,

sentences of: see final.

Diacritical marks: 226.

Dieresis: 204 f.; marks of, 244.

Dialects: fuller knowledge of the dialects, 16 f., 39 f., 41-4, 46, 52 f., 71, 79, 110 f.; dialect-coloured vernacular, 61-9, S2, 178 f.; accent in, 229-31, 238 ff.; declension in, 247; passim.

Diatribe, Cynic-Stoic: 420 f., 1196 f.

Diffuseness: see pleonasm.

Digamma: 209, 223 f.

Digraphs: 209.

Digression: 437 f.

Diminutives: frequent in the N. T., 82; less common than in modern Gk., 155.

Diodorus Siculus: see Index of Quotations.

Diphthongs: 204 f.

Direct discourse: exchange with indirect, 442 f.; with recitative o[ti , 1027 f.

Discord: see concord.

Disjunctive particles: negative, 1165 f., 1173; conjunctions, 1188 f.

Dissimilation: see assimilation.

Distributive numerals: see numerals.

Distributive pronouns: inflection of, 292 f.; syntax of, 743, 744-50; avm─ fo,teroi , 744 f.; e[kastoj , 745 f.; a;lloj , 746-8 (absolutely, for two, adjective, with article, a;lloj a;llo , ellipsis, a;lloj and e[teroj , different, avllo, trioj); e[teroj , 748-50 (absolutely, with article, pair, different, three or more, contrast, antithetic); artide as, 769.

Division of words: not in old MSS., 243 f.

Doric: purest Hellenic, 17; tenacity of, 52; Doric-AEolic, 53; influence on the koinh, , 63; on the N. T., 82; genitive-ablative, 254, passim.

Doric: 16 f., 52-4, 62 f., 82, 118, 184 f., 193 f., 211, 224, 229, 240, 249, 254 f., 267, passim.

Double comparative and superlative: 663, 670.

Double compounds: 160, 165, 565.

Double consonants: 211-5.

Double declension: 257.

Double interrogative: 737.

Dual: origin and disappearance of, 251 f.

Duality: in the comparative adjective, 662 f.; with e[teroj , 749.

Durative (linear) action: 823 f., 92.

Dynamic: see middle voice.

E

Ecbatic i[na : see consecutive clauses.

Ecbatic infinitive: see consecutive clauses and infinitive.

Editor's prerogative: 244 f.

Effective action: see aorist.

Egypt: 21, 56; peculiarities of koinh, in, 68, 91, 100 f., 111 f., 17S, 186, 189, 191, 195 f., 200, 202, 257, passim.

Elative: 278 f., 670.

Elean: 266.

Elision: 72, 206-8, 223, 226, 1210.

Ellipsis: of subject or predicate, 391; of ou-toj , 705 f.; in general, 1201 f.

Emphasis: position of, 417.1; in pronouns, 677 ff., 684 f., 686, 708.

Enallage: 454.

Enclitics: accent of, 233 ff.; pronouns, 681f.; rules for accent of, 1211.

English: best English spoken in Edinburgh and Louisville, 69.

Epanadiplosis: 1200.

Epexegetic infinitive: 1086 f.

Epexegetical apposition: 399.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1231

Epic: 185, 204, passim.

Epicene : gender, 252.

Epidiorthosis : 1199.

Epimenides : see Index of Quotations.

Epistles: distinction from letters, 70 f., 85 ff., 197, 200, 239.

Epistolary aorist: see aorist.

Erasmus: on pronunciation of Greek, 237, 240.

Etacism: 191.

Etymology: work of the philosophers, 31; use of term, 143 f.

Euphony: 419-23.

Euripides: see Index of Quotations.

Euthalius: 241.

Exclamation: 461, 739, 741.

F

Fayum Papyri: see Index of Quotations.

Feminine: see gender.

Figures of speech: ch. XXII, 1194-1208;- rhetorical, not grammatical, 1194; style in the N. T., 1194-7; figures of thought, 1198 f. (rhetorical question, oratory, irony, prodiorthosis, epidiorthosis, paraleipsis, heterogeneous structure); figures of expression, 1199-1208 (parallels and contrasts: parallelism, synonymous or antithetic, chiasm or reverted parallelism, anaphora, antistrophe, poetry 1199 f.; contrasts in words: epanadiplosis, climax, zeugma, brachylogy, synonyms, onomatopoetic, alliteration, parenomasia, annominatio, parechesis, pun 1200 f.; contraction and expansion: ellipsis, aposiopesis, breviloquence or brachylogy, constructio praegnans, constructio ad sensum, hypallage, pleonasm, hyperbole, litotes, meiosis 1201-6; metaphors and similar tropes: metaphor, simile, parable, allegory, metonymy 1206 f.).

Final and consecutive clauses: kinship, 980; origin in parataxis, 980 f ; pure final, 981-91 (iva 981-5, o[pwj 985-7, w`j 987, mh,├ mh, pote├ mh, pwj , 987-9, relative 989, infinitive 91, participle 991, 1128 f.); subfinal, 991-7 ( i[na 991-4, o[pwj 994 f., mh,├ mh, pote├ mh, pwj 995 f., relative 996, infinitive 996 f., 1087-9, eiv and o[ti . 997); consecutive, 997-1003 i[na 997-9, w[ste 999 f., w`j 1000 f., o[ti . 1001, relative 1001, infinitive 1001 ff., 1089-91).

Final consonants (letters): 194, 21, 248.

Finnish: 250.

First or a declension: 254-9, 267.

Foreign words: 108-11, 235 f. See Latinisms.

Formation of words: in the vernacu koinh, , 72; ch. 11, pp. 143-76; formative suffixes, 146-60; by composition, 160-71.

Forms, rare: see declensions and con jugation of verbs.

Formulas of citation: 1027 f.

Fourth Book of Maccabees: see Index of Quotations.

Fourth Gospel and Apocalypse: see Index of Quotations.

French: accent, 230; cases and prepositions of, 252; gender, 252; passim.

Future: conjugation of, 353-7 (origin of 353 f., Ionic-Attic 355, syncopated 353 f., of liquid verbs 356, active and middle 356, second passive 356 f., first passive 357, per-phrastic 357); syntax of middle, 813 f.; passive, 818-20; relation of aorist to, 846 f.; punctiliar (aoristic), 870-6 ("mixed" tense, punctiliar or durative 870-2, modal aspest of, merely futuristic, volitive, deliberative 872-6, in the modes 876-9: indicative 876, subjunctive and optative 876, infinitive 876, participle 877 f., periphrastic substitutes for 878 f.); durative (linear), 888-9 (three kinds of action 889, periphrastic 889); fut. ind. and nor. subj., 924 f.; fut. ind. as imperative, 942 f., 1118 f.

1232 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Future perfect: 361, 906 f.

Futuristic: modal aspect of future, merely futuristic, 872-4; present, 869 f., 881; pres. part., 992; present perfect, 898; subj., 928-30; optative, 937-9.

G

g -text: see Alexandrian text.

Gender: of adjectives, 156 f.; in substantives, 252-4 (grammatical gender 252, kinds of 252, variations in 252 f., LXX illustrations 254); no feminine inflection in second declension, 259, 261 f.; concord in, 410-3 (fluctuations in 410 f., neuter singular 409, 411, explanatory o[ evstin and tou/t v e;stin 411 f., the participle 412, adjective 412 f.); of adjectives without substantives, 652-4; agreement with substantives, 654; ou-toj , 704; evkei/noj , 708; o[j , 712 ff.; o[stij , 729.

Genealogy in Matthew: 270.

Genitive : form, 248, 263, 491 f.; Doric genitive-abl., 254 f.; Attic genitive-abl., 255 f.; name, 492; specifying case, 493 f.; local use, 494; temporal use, 495; with substantives, 495-503 (possessive 495 f., attributive 496 f., predicate 497 f., appositive or definitive 498 f., subjective 499, objective 499-501, of relationship 501 f., partitive 502, position of 502 f., concatenation of 503); with adjectives, 503-5; with adverbs and prepositions, 505 and ch. XIII; with verbs, 505-12 (very common 506, fading distinction from acc. 506, verbs of sensation 507 f., of emotion 508 f., of sharing, partaking, filling 509 f., of ruling 510, of buying, selling, being worthy of 510 f., of accusing and condemning 511, due to prepositions in composition 511 f., attraction of relative 512); of infinitive, 512; absolute, 512-4, 1131 f.

German: passim.

Gerundive: 157. See verbal adjectives.

Gnomic: aorist, 836 f.; present, 866; present perfect, 897.

Gorgian figures: 1197 IT.

Gothic : passim.

Grammar: the ideal grammar, 3; the pre-Winer period, 3; the service of Winer, 4; the modern period, the service of Deissmann, Thumb, Moulton, etc., 5-7; the new grammatical equipment, 8-31; sketch of Greek grammatical history, 8-10; advance in general Greek grammar, 12; critical editions of Greek authors, 13 ; grammatical monographs, 13; grammatical commentaries, 29; new point of view, 30; comparative, 31-48; in Alexander's time, 58-61; Greek grammarians and Latin, 822; Alexandrian grammarians and adjectives, 650; passim.

Greek authors: 13 f., 55, 57-9, 86 f., 94, 109, 121, 128 f., 147, 191, 199, 203, 218, 227, 238, 251, 265 f., chapter on Formation of Words, and passim. See Index of Quotations.

Greek language: sketch of Greek grammatical history, 8-13; relation to earlier tongues, 39; regarded as a whole, 40-45; unity of, 41 f.; periods of, 43; the Greek point of view, 46-48; passim.

Greek culture : 14 ff., 35; subject to non-Greek influences, 49, 58, 67, 75, 84 f., 111 f., passim.

Greek, later: see Byzantine or modem Greek.

Greek point of view: 46-8.

H

Headings, anarthrous: see article.

Hebraisms: 3; the old view, 24 ff.; the revolt of Deissmann, 25 f.; number of, in N. T., 76 ff., 89; the traditional standpoint, 88 f.; translation, 89 f.; papyri and inscriptions disprove many, 90 f.; real, in

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1233

N. T., 94-6; greater indirect influence of the LXX, 96-102; translitcrated words, 225; variety in N. T. writers, 106-8; on preposi- tions, 556 f.; fobei/sqai avpo, , 577; use of eivj├ 5 f.; superlative, 671; tense, 822; passim.

Hebraists : 76 ff., 88 f., 90 f.

Hebrew: proper names, 214; transliterated Hebrew words, 225; accent of proper names, 236, 259, 263, 268 ff., passim.

Hebrews: literary quality of, 106; peculiarities of, 132 f.; alone of the N. T. books avoids hiatus, 206, 218; rhythm in, 1196 f.

Hellenism: influence on Paul, 86.

Hellenistic : see koinh ,.

Hendiadys: 1206.

Herculaneum: 196, 223, passim.

Hennas: see Index of Quotations.

Herodotus: 13, 57, 59, 266, passim.

Heteroclisis: 257-9 (the first and second decls., the first and third); between second and third, 261 f.; between masculine and neuter of second, 262 f.; third decl., 269.

Heterogeneous structure: 441 f., 1199.

Hiatus: 206-8, 219.

Historic present: see present.

Historical method of study: ch. II, 31-48; historical element essential, 31; descriptive historical grammar, 41, 71, 78, 173-5; syntax, 386.

History of words: 173 f.

Homer and Homeric Greek : 249, 252, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Hypallage: 1204.

Hyperbaton: 423 f.

Hyperbole : 1205.

Hypocoristic : 171-3.

Hypotaxis: 426 f., 429 f.; hypotactic sentences, 950-1049 (relative 953-62, causal 962-6, comparative 966-9, local 969 f., temporal 970-9, final and consecutive 980-1003, wishes 1003 f., conditional 1004-27, indirect discourse 1027-48, series of subordinate clauses 1048 f.).

Hypothetical sentences: see conditional sentences.

Hysteron proteron: 423.

I

Identical pronouns: see intensive pro nouns.

Illative particles: see (inferential) conjunctions.

Illiteracy: in the papyri, 70 f.; diver sity of culture, 85; passim.

Imperative: origin of, 320, 327-30 (non-thematic stem 327, thematic stem 327 f., suffix - qi 328, suffix - tw 328, old injunctive 328 f., forms in -am, 329, form in - son 329, first per son 329 f., prohibitions 330, perfect 330, periphrastic 330, circumlocutions 330); perfect, 360 f.; use of aorist, 855 f.; present, 890; perfect, 908; imper. and subj., 925; origin of, 941; meaning of, 941; disappearance of imperative forms, 941 f.; alternatives for, 942-6 (fut. ind. 942 f., subj. 943, opt. 943, infinitive 943 f., participle 944-6); uses of, 946-50 (command or ex hortation 946 f., prohibition 947, entreaty 947 f., permission 948, concession or condition 948 f., in asyndeton 949, in subordinate clauses 949 f., tenses 950, in indirect discourse 950); negative with, 1161 f., 1170.

Imperfect: relation of, to aorist, 837-40; doubtful, 882 f.; descriptive tense in narrative, 883 f.; iterative or customary, 884; progressive, 884; inchoative or conative, 885; " nega tive," 885; potential, 885-7; in in direct discourse, 887; periphrastic, 887 f.; past perfect as, 885.

Impersonal verbs: active, 802; construction, 820.

"Improper" prepositions: see prepositions, 554, 636

Inceptive action: 150.

Incorporation of antecedent: 718 f., 731, 733.

1234 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Addenda 3rd ed.

Indeclinable words: accent, 236; substantives, 259; various foreign words, 269 f.; adjectives, 275 f.; ti, , 736; ti , 744.

Indefinite article : 674 f., 796.

Indefinite pronouns: inflection of, 292; Tis, 741-4 (accent 741, relation to rig 741 f., as substantive 742, with numerals 742, with substantives 742 f., with adjectives 743, as predicate 743, position of 743, as antecedent 743, alternative 743, negative forms 743 f., indeclinable ti 744); ei-j , 744; pa/j , 744; o` dei/na , 744.

Independent sentences: see para.taxis.

Indicative: real mode, 320 f.; no mode sign, 322 f.; use of aor. ind., 835-48; future, 876; meaning of, 914 f.; kinds of sentences using, 915-8 (declarative or interrogative 915-7, positive or negative 917 f.); special uses of, 918-24 (past tenses, for courtesy 918 f., present necessity, obligation, etc. 919-21, apodosis of second class conditions 921-3, impossible wishes 923, present 923 f., future 924); in indirect discourse, 1032-6; negative with, 1157-60,1168 f.

Indirect discourse: exchange with direct, 442 f.; aorist participle in, 863 f.; imperfect ind., 887; present part., 992; perfect in; 897; inf. perf., 908; recitative o[ti in oratio recta, 1027 f.; change of person in indirect discourse, 1028 f.; change of tense in, 1029 f.; change of mode in, 1030 f.; limits of indirect disc., 1031 f.; declarative clauses (indirect assertions), 1032-43 ( o[ti and indicative 1032-6, infinitive 1036-40, 1082-5, participle, 1040-2, 1122-4, kai, evge,neeto 1042 f.); indirect questions, 1043-6 (tense 1043, mode 1043 f., interrog. pronouns and conjunctions used 1044 f.); indirect command, 1046 f., 1082-5 (deliberative questions 1046, con junctions i[na and o[pwj 1046, in finitive, 1046 ff.); mixture, 1047 f.; the subordinate clause, 1048.

Individuality of N. T. writers: 116-37.

Indo-European: see Indo-Germanic.

Indo-Germanic : 10,37 ff., 145 ff., 209, 217, passim. See comparative philology (grammar).,

Inferential conjunctions : 1189-92.

Infinitive : ending, 246; forms of, 368-71 (original terminology 368, fixed case-forms 368 f., with voice and tense 369 f., no personal endings 370, article with 371, disappearance of inf. 371, N. T. forms 371); in apposition, 399 f.; in clauses, 431 f.; accusative with, 489 f.; in genitive, 512; in dative, 541 f.; with adjectives, 658 f.; article with, 765; and voice, 802; use of aorist, 856-8; future, 876 f.; perfect, 908 f.; as imperative, 943 f.; causal use of dia, <GRK>to, , 966; temporal use of, 978 f.; purpose, 989-91; sub-final, 996 f.; consecutive, 1001-3; in indirect discourse, 1036-40; in indirect command, 1046-8; origin of inf., 1051 f.; development, 1052-6 (prehistoric period 1052, earliest his toric period 1052-4, classic period 1054-6, later period 1056-8); substantival aspects of inf., 1058-79 (case, subject or object 1058-62, articular 1062-8, prepositions with 1068-75, with substantives 1075 f., with adjectives 1076 f., with verbs 1077 f., appositional and epexegetical 1078 f.); verbal aspects of, 1079-95 (voice 1079 f., tense 1080-2, cases with 1082, in ind. disc. 1082-5, personal construction with 1085 f., epexegetical inf. 1086 f., purpose 1087-9, result 1089-91, cause 1091, time 1091 f., absolute 1092 f., negatives with 1093-5, 1162, 1171, a;n with 1095); relation between part. and inf., 1101-3.

Infixes: 146.

Inflectional languages: 37.

Ingressive action: see aorist.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1235

Injunctive mood: 321, 328 f., 913.

Inscriptions : the Greek inscriptions, 14-6, 52, 56 f., 66 ff., 76-80; more literary than the papyri, 84, 90 f., 96 f., 100 f., 106, 116, 130 f., 138 f., 148, 180, 181-93, 200, 202, ad libi- turn through the book. See Index of Quotations.

Inseparable prefixes: 161-3.

Instrumental case: endings, 249 f.; term, 525 f.; syncretistic, 526; place, 526 f.; time, 527 f.; associative idea, 528-30; with words of likeness and identity, 530; manner, 530-2; with adjectives, 523, 530; measure, 532; cause, 532; means, 532-4; with prepositions, 534 f. and ch. XIII.

Instrumental use of evn : 589-91. See also locative.

Intensive particles: adverbs, 302; prepositions, 563 f.; limitations, 1144-7; ge, , 1147-9; dh,├ 1 149; ei= mh,n , nh, and nai, , 1150; me,n , 1150-3; pe,r , 1153 f.; toi, , 1154 f.

Intensive perfect: see perfect tense.

Intensive pronouns: declension of, 287; nominative use of auvto,j , 685 f.; varying degrees of emphasis, 686; auvto,j with ou-toj├ 686; auvto,j almost demonstrative, 686, in oblique cases, 686 f.; side by side with reflexive, 687; 6 667-65, 687.

Interjections: 302, 1193.

Interrogative particles: single questions, 1175-7 (direct, no particle, negative, others, interrogative pronouns, conjunctions, indirect, pronouns, conjunctions); double questions, 1177 (direct, indirect).

Interrogative pronouns: inflection of, 291 f.; ti,j , 735-40 (substantival or adjectival 735, absence of gender 735, = poi/oj 735 f., indeclinable ti, 736, alternative questions 736 f., double 737, as relative 737 f., predicate ti, 738, adverbial 738 f., with prepositions 739, with particles 739, as exclamation 739, indirect questions 739, ti,j or ti.j 739 f.); poi/oj , 740 (qualitative, non-qualitative, indirect questions); to,soj , 741 f. (rarity, meaning, indirect, exclamatory); po,teroj , 741 (rare, indirect questions); potapo,j , 741; in indirect questions, 1044 f.

Intransitive: 330 f., 797 f., 806, 815 f.

Inverse attraction: 488, 717 f.

Ionic: earliest in literature, 16, 17; influence on the koinh, , 62 f.; on the N. T., 82, 181-93, 200, 203-6, 210f., 217 f., ad libitum.

Iota adscript: 194 f., 209.

Iota subscript: 194 f.

Ireland, bilingualism in: 30.

Irony: 1198 f.

Irrational final and v: 194, 219-21.

"Irregular" verbs: see list, 1212-20.

Isolating languages: 37.

Isolation of Greek, not true: 36-39.

Itacism: 72, 178 ff., 182, 191 ff., 194-7, 198-200, 239 f., 265 f., ad libi- turn. See ch. on Orthography and Phonetics.

J

James, peculiarities of : 123 f. See Index of Quotations.

Jesus language of : both Aramaic and Greek 26-9.

"Jewish" Greek: see "Biblical Greek, Hebraisms, Aramaic, koinh, .

Jews: 83, 98 f., 102, etc.

John peculiarities of: 133 - 7. S Index of Quotations.

Josephus: 28; an illustration of Atticistic Gk. in contrast with 1 Maccabees, 87, 236, 269, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Jude: peculiarities of, 124 f. See Index of Quotations.

Justin Martyr: see Index of Quotations.

K

Kaqareu,ousa : 18; artificial modern Greek, 36, 60, passim.

Kinship of Greek words: 174 f.

1236 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Koinh, : 17, 18, 21-4, 32, 46; chapter on, 49-74; term, 49; origin, 49; triumph of the Attic, 51; fate of the other dialects, 52 f.; influence of the dialects on the koinh, , 53; partial koines, 53; effect of Alexander's campaigns, 53 f.; spread of the koinh, , 54-60; a real world-speech, 54-56; vernacular, 56; literary, 57 f.; the Atticistic reaction, 58-60; characteristics of the vernacular koinh, , 60-73; vernacular Attic, the base of the koinh, , 60-2; the other dialects in the koinh, , 62-64; non-dialectical changes in, 64 f.; new words in, 65; new forms of old words, 65 f.; poetical and vernacular words, 65; new meanings to old words, 66; i/A.D. the climax of the koinh, , 66; provincial influences in, 66-9; koinh, in Asia Minor and in Alexandria, 67 f.; in Palestine, 69; koinh, a single language, 69; personal equation, 69-71; resume of the characteristics of the vernacular koinh, , 71-4 (phonetics and orthography 71 f., vocabulary 72, word-formation 72, accidence 72 f., syntax 73 f.); adaptability of the koinh, to the Roman world, 74 f.; place of the N. T. in the koinh, , 76-140, 152 f., 159 f., 161-3, 171; accent in, 228 f.; pronunciation in, 236-41; ad libitum in the book.

L

Labials: assimilation before, 216, 264, 1210.

Language of Jesus: 26-9, 99, 102 f., 105. See Jesus.

Language, study of: the fascination of, 3; the new point of view, 8-12; as history, 31; a living organism, origin of, evolution in, changes in vernacular, 33 f.; Greek not isolated, 36; common bond in, 37, passim.

Late Greek: see Byzantine.

Latin: 36, 39, 46 f.; late Latin as ill koinh, , 55, 74, 79, 103; Latinisms in the N. T., 108-11, 131, 137, 144; passim.

Latin authors: 85, 108 f., 128, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Latin versions: passim.

Latinisms: 10S-10, 131, etc.

Lesbian: 17, 184, 249. See AEolic.

Letters: as distinct from epistles, 70, 85 ff.

Lewis Syriac: passim.

Lexical: new knowledge of words, 65 f.; N. T. lexicography needing reworking, 144, passim.

Limitative infinitive : see infinitive.

Linear action: see durative.

Literary element in N. T.: 83-8.

Literary koinh, : true part of the koinh, , 50, 57 f.; literary elements in the N. T., 83-8, 106; high standard of culture in the Greco-Roman world, 85.

Literary plural: 406 f., 677 f.

Litotes: 1205.

Local cases : 451. See cases.

Local clauses : 969 f.

Locative: form, 249 f.; name, 520; significance, 520 f.; place, 521 f. time, 522 f.; with adjectives, 523; with verbs, 523 f.; with substantives, 524; with prepositions, 524 f. and ch. XIII; pregnant construetion, 525.

Lucian: see Index of Quotations.

Luke: literary element in, 106; pecu of, 120-3, 135, 179, 240, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Luther's German Bible : influence of, 92.

LXX: see Septuagint.

Lycaonian: vernacular surviving in koinh, , 55 f.

M

Macedonian: influence on the koinh, , 63 f.; words, 111.

Magnesia: 196, 200, 208, 223, passim.

Manner: see adverbs, instrumental case, participle.

Manuscripts

of N. T.: vary in orthography, 179-89, 191-231; show

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1237

changes in pronunciation, 239 ff.; have beginnings of chapters and paragraphs, 241 f.; uncials have no distinction between words, 242 ff.; ad libitum.

Mark: Aramaic influence in, 106; Latin, 110; peculiarities of, 118 f. See Index of Quotations.

Masculine: see gender.

Matthew: Aramaic influence in, 106; peculiarities of, 119 f., 135, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Means : see instrumental case, participle.

Meiosis: 1205 f.

Metaphor: 1206.

Metaplasm: 257-9, 261-3, 269.

Metathesis: 221, 1210.

Metonymy : 1207.

Middle : passive displacing, 333 f.; endings, 339 f., giving way to active, 356; perfect, 359; with reflexive pronoun, 690 f.; origin of, 803; meaning of, 803 f.; acute difference from active, 804; use of not obligatory, 804-6; transitive or intransitive, 806; direct, 806-8; causative or permissive, 808 f. ; indirect, 809 f .; redundant, 811; dynamic (deponent), 811-3; middle future though active present, 813 f.; retreating in N. T., 814.

Minuscules: 217, passim.

Mixed declension: 263. See declenlions.

Mode (mood): conjugation of, 320-30 (number of 320 f., distinctions between 321 f., indicative 322 f., subjunctive 323 ff., optative 325 ff., imperative 327-30); syntax of, ch. XIX, 911-1049; introductory discussion, 910-4; in paratactic sentences, 914-50 (indicative 914-24, subjunctive 924-35, optative 935-40, imperative 941-50); in hypotactic sentences, 950-1049 (use of modes in 950, use of conjunctions in 951 f., logical varieties of subordinate clauses 952-1049: relative 953-62, causal 962-6, comparative 966-9, local 969 f., temporal 970-9, final and consecutive 980-1003, wishes 1003 f., conditional 1004-27, indirect discourse 1027-48, series of subordinate clauses 1048 f.); change of mode in indirect discourse, 1030 f.

Modern Greek: literature on, 22-4; importance for N. T. Gk., 44-6; illustrating N. T. Gk., 137 f., 147, 150, 155, 177 f., 557, ad libitum.

Mood: see mode.

Music: 228.

Mycenaean age: 43 f.

N

Names of persons: see proper names.

Narrative, tenses in, in Greek: see aorist, imperfect, present, present perfect.

Negative particles: in relative clauses, 962; with inf., 1093-5; with participle, 1136-9; objective ouv and its compounds, 1155-66 (origin 1155, history 1156, meaning 1156 f., with the indicative, independent sentences, subordinate clauses 1157-60, with the subjunctive 1160 Er with the optative 1161, with the imperative 1161 f., with infinitive 1162, with the participle 1162 f., with nouns 1163 f., kai. ouv 1164, redundant or pleonastic ouv 1164, repetition of ouv 1164, intensifying compound 1164 f., disjunctive 1165 f.); subjective mh, and its coinpounds, 1166-75 (history of mh, 1166 f., significance of 1167, uses of <GRK> mh, , indicative 1168 f., subjunctive 1169 f., optative 1170, impera,tive 1170, infinitive 1171, participle 1172, nouns 1172, intensifying compounds 1172 f., kai. mh, 1173, disjunctive use 1173); combination of two negatives, 1173-5 ( mh. ouv 1173 f., ouv mh, 1174 f.).

Negative pronouns: ouvdei,j├ ouvqei,j ouvde. , ei-j├ ei-j - ouv , 750 f.; ou[tij├ mh, tij├ 751 f.; ouv pa/j├ mh. pa/j 76.5, 752 f.

1238 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Neuter: as substantive, 156, 267 f.; see gender.

Neutral type of text: 180, 212, 219, passim.

New material: ch. I, 3-30.

New Testament, Greek of: place in the koinh, , 76-140; chiefly the vernacular, 76-83; not a biblical Greek, 77-79; proof that in the vernacular, 79-83; the lexical proof from the papyri and inscriptions, 80-2; accidence corroborated by papyri and inscriptions, 82; syntactical peculiarities, 82 f.; phrases common to N. T. and papyri, 83; literary elements in N. T. Gk., 83-8; literary quality in the N. T., 84; controversy now whether there is appreciable Semitic colouring in the N. T., 88 f.; view of Deissmann and Moulton, 89-93; some real Hebraisms in the N. T., 92 f.; little direct Hebrew influence, list of probable Hebraisms, 94-6; deeper impress of the LXX in vocabulary, accidente and syntax, though great variety in the LXX, 96-102; Aramaisms in the N. T., in vocabulary and in syntax, 102-5; variation in Aramaic and Hebrew colouring in different parts of the N. T., 106-8; Latinisms in the N. T., names of persons and places, military terms, words and phrases, syntax, 108-11; sporadic foreign words in the N. T., 111; the Christian addition, 112-6; transfiguration of the vocabulary, 116; individual peculiarities of N. T. writers, 116-37; see separate writers by name; N. T. Gk. illustrated by modern Gk., 137 ff.; syntax of, 381-3.

N. T. authors: 28 f., 76-139. See Indcx of Quotations.

Nominative: nominativus pendens in the vernacular koinh, , 73; form as vocative, 264, 461; N. T. forms in, 267 f.; not the oldest case, 456; reason for, 457; predicate, 457 f.; sometimes unaltered, 458 f.; abso lute, 459 f.; parenthetic, 460; in exclamations, 461; absolute, 1130.

Non-thematic present stems: see present tense.

Northwest Greek: remains of, in the koinh, , 53; influence of, 61, 63; on the N. T., 82, 266, passim.

Nouns : root-nouns, 145; substantive and adjective, 246; verbal, ch. XX; negatives with, 1163 f., 1172.

Number: in substantives, 251 f.; concord in, 403-9 (subject and predicate 403-7, substantive and adjective 407 f., representative singular 408, idiomatic plural in nouns 408, idiomatic singular in nouns 409, special instances 409); adjective and substantive, 654 f.; ou-toj , 704; evkei/noj , 708; o[j , 714; o[stij , 729; oi-oj , 731.

Numerals: declension of, 281-4 (origin of 281, different functions of 281, cardinals 281-3, ordinals 283 f., distributives 284, proportionals 284, adverbs 284); syntax of, 671-5 ( ei-j and prw/toj 671 f., simplification of the 'teens 672, inclusive ordinal 672, distributives 673, cardinal e`pta, , 673 f., substantive not expressed 674, adverbs with 674, ei-j as indefinite article 674 f., ei-j─tij 675, distributive use of ei-j 675); tij with, 742; article with ordinals, 793 f.

0

Object of verb: see case.

Object-clauses: see hypotaxis.

Oblique cases: 247. See cases.

Old Testament: 99. See Septuagint and Index of Quotations.

Onomatopoetic: 1201.

Optative: origin of form, 320, 325-7; perfect, 360 f., 907 f.; use of aorist, 854 f.; future, 876; present, 889 f.; opt. and subj., 925 f.; history of, 935 f.; significance, 936 f.; three uses, 937-40 (futuristic or potential 937-9, volitive 939 f., deliberative 940); as imper., 943; in indirect dis

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1239

course, 1030 f., 1043 f.; negative with, 1161, 1170.

Oratio obliqua: see indirect discourse.

Oratio recta: see direct discourse.

Oratio variate: 440-3 (distinctive from anacoluthon 441 f., heterogeneous structure 441 f., participle in 442, exchange of direct and indirect discourse 442 f.).

Oratory: in Hebrews, 1198.

Ordinals: see number.

Orthography: in the vernacular koinh, , 71 f.; ch. VI, 176-245; the ancient literary spelling, 177 f.

Ostraca: 17-21; texts of, 22, 91, 191, 266, passim.

Oxyrhynchus papyri: see Index of Quotations.

P

Palatals: 216 f., 1210.

Papyri: literature on, 17-22, 52, 56 f., 66 ff. ; illustrate the vernacular koinh, , 69; illiteracy in, 70 f.; and the N. T. Gk., 80-3; agreeing with the uncials in orthography, 181; accidence and syntax of, 381; ad libitum through the book.

Parable : 1206 f.

Paragraph: discussion of, 241 f.; connection between, 444.

Paraleipsis: 1199.

Parallelism: 1199 f.

Parataxis : 426, 428; modes in paratactic sentences, 914-50, 953, 980 f.; paratactic conjunctions, 1177-92.

Parechesis : 1201.

Parenthesis: 433-5; parenthetic nominative, 460.

Paronomasia: 1201.

Participle : in - ui/a , 256; forms of, 371-6 (name 371 f., verbal adjectives 372 f., with tense and voice 373 f., in periphrastic use 374-6); gender in, 412; case, 413; in clauses, 431 f.; in anacoluthon, 439 f.; in oratio variata, 442; ace. absolute, 490 f.; gen. absolute, 512-4; adverbs with, 546; as adverbs, 551; article with, 764 f., 777-9; use of aorist, 858-64; future, 877 f.; present, 891 f.; per fect, 909 f.; participle as imperative 944-6; causal, 966; temporal use, 979; purpose, 991; in indirect discourse, 1040-2; history of part., 1098-1100 (Sanskrit 1098, Homer's time 1098, Attic period 1098 f., koinh, 1099, modern Gk. 1099 f.); significance, 1100-4 (originally an adjective 1100 f., addition of verbal functions 1101, double aspect of 1101, relation between part. and inf. 1101-3, method of treating 1103 f.); adjectival aspects of, 1104-10 (declension 1104, attribu tive, anarthrous, articular 1105-8, predicate 1108, as a substantive 1108f., as an adverb 1109 f.); verbal aspects of, 1110-41 (voice 1110 f., tense 1111-9, timelessness 1111, aorist 1112-4, present 1115 f., perfect 1116-8, future 1118f., cases 1119, supplementary 1119-24, periphrastic construction 1119 f., diminution of complementary 1120 f., with verbs of emotion 1121 f., in- direct discourse 1122-4; circum stantial, participial clauses 32 (general theory 1124, varieties of, time, manner, means, cause, purpose, condition, concession 1125-30, absolute nominative, ac cusative, genitive 1130-2); independent, 1132-5; co-ordination between, 1135 f.; ouv and mh, with, 1136-9, 1162 f., 1172; other par tidies with, 1139-41).

Particles: elision with, 207; with sub-. ordinate clauses, 950-1049; with participle, 1036-41; scope, 1142-4; intensive or emphatic, 1144-55; negative, 1155-75; interrogative, 1175-7; conjunctions, 1177-93 (paratactic, 1177-92, hypotactic 1192 f.); interjections, 1193.

Partitive: apposition, 399, 746; genitive, 502, 519; ablative, 519; use of evk , 599; with e[kastoj , 746.

Passive: supplanting middle, 333 f.; endings, 340 f.; future, second and

1240 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

first, 356 f.; perfect, 359; s in aorist, 362; with accusative, 484-6; origin of, 814 f.; significance of, 815; intransitive or transitive, 815 f.; syntax of aorist, 816 ff.; passive "deponents," 817 f.; future, 818-20; agent with, 820; impersonal construction, 820.

Past perfect: relation of aorist to, 837-40; double idea, 903; a luxury in Greek, 903 f.; intensive, 904; extensive, 904 f.; of broken continuity, 905 f.; in conditional sentences, 906; periphrastic, evkei,mhn , 906; augment in, 1211 f.

Patronymics: 155.

Paul: 54 ff.; and Hellenism, 84-8,106; peculiarities of, 127-31, 135, 179, 195, 218, ad libitum. See Index of Quotations.

Perfect, future: see future perfect.

Perfect, past: see past perfect.

Perfect, present: of - mi verbs, 319 f.; imperative, 330; conjugation of, 359-62 (name 359, original perfect 359 f., k perfect 358 f., aspirated 359, middle and passive 359, decay of perfect forms 359 f., in subjunctive, optative, imperative 360, indicative 360-2, s in middle and passive 362); reduplication in, 363-5; completed state, 823 f.; relation of aorist to, 843-5; present as perfeet, 881; perfect as present, 881; idea of, 892-4 (present, intensive, extensive, time); present perfect indicative, 894-903 (intensive 894 f., extensive 895 f., of broken continuity 896, dramatic historical 896 f., gnomic 897, in indirect discourse 897 f., futuristic 898, "aoris-, tic" present perfect 898-902, pertphrastic 902 f.); subj. and opt., 907 f.; infinitive, 908 f. (indirect discourse 908 f., not indirect disc., subject or object, preposition 909); participle, 909 f. and 1116-8 (meaning, time, various uses, periphrastic).

"Perfective": use of prepositions, 563 f.; avpo, , 576 f.; dia, , 581 f.; 596 f.; evpi, , 600; kata, , 606; para, , 613; peri, , 617; pro,j , 623; su,n , 627 f.; u`pe,r 629; "perfective" and " imperfective," 826-8.

Pergamum: a centre of culture, 56 ff., 61, 63, 66, 75, 111, 208, 223, passim.

Period: use of, 242 f.

Periodic structure: 432 f., 1200.

Periods of N. T. grammatical study: 3-7.

Periods of the Greek language: 43 f.

Periphrasis: with participle, 330, 357, 374-6, 826, 878, 887 f., 889, 906, 1119 f.

Persian: words in N. T., 111.

Person: concord in, 402 f., 712; change in ind. disc., 1028 f.

Person-endings: 329, 335; active, 335-9.

Personal construction: with adjective, 657 f.; with inf., 1085 f.

Personal equation: in the koinh, , 69 ff., 179.

Personal pronouns: question of auvtou/ 226; inflection of, 286 f.; nominative, 676-80 (emphasis in 676, first 677 f., second 678, third 679 f.); oblique cases, 680-2 (originally reflexive 680 f., auvtou/ 681, genitive for possessive 681, enclitic forms 681 f.); frequency of, 682 f.; redundant, 683; according to sense, 683 f.; repetition of substantive, 684.

Peter: peculiarities of, 125-7. See Index of Quotations.

Philo: see Index of Quotations.

Philology: see comparative grammar.

Phocian: 266.

Phoenician: words in N. T., 111, 182, 209, passim.

Phonetics: in the vernacular koinh, , 71 f.; ch. VI, 177-245.

Phrygia: old dialect of, 67.

Pindar: see Index of Quotations.

Pindaric construction: 405.

Plato: see Index of Quotations.

Play on words : 1201.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1241

Pleonasm: in pronouns, 683; ouv , 1164, 1205.

Pluperfect: see past perfect.

Plural: 251. See number.

Plutarch: see Index of Quotations.

Poetry: see rhythm.

Point-action: see punctiliar.

Polybius : see Index of Quotations.

Polysyndeton: 1194.

Pompeian: 186, passim.

Pontic infinitive: 1056, 1063.

Position: of words, 417-25 (freedom 417, predicate 417, emphasis 417 f., minor words in 418 f., euphony and rhythm 419-23, prolepsis 423, hysteron proteron 423, hyperbaton 423 f., postpositives 424 f., fluetuating words 424 f., order of clauses in compound sentences 425); of genitive, 502 f.; of article with attributive, 776-89; with predicate, 789 f.

Positive : adjective, 276, 659-61.

Possessive pronouns : inflection of, 288 f.; article as, 684; only first and second in N. T., 684; emphasis, 684 f.; with article, 685; possessive and genitive, 685; objective use, 685; instead of reflexive, 685; artide as, 769 f.; article with, 770.

Postpositive : 424; some prepositions, 553.

Potential: imperfect, 885-7; opt., 937-9.

Predicate : essential part of sentence, 390 f.; only predicate, 390 f.; verb not the only, 394 f.; copula not essential, 395 f.; one of the radiating foci, 396 f.; expansion of, 400 f. (predicate in wider sense 400, inf. and part. 400, relation between predicate and substantive 400, pronoun 400, adjective 401, adverb 401, prepositions 401, negative partides 401, subordinate clauses 401, apposition and looser amplifications 401) ; agreeing with subject, 403-6; position, 417; pred. nominafive, 457 f.; vocative in, 464 f.; adjective, 655 f.; nouns with article, 767-9; article with, 789 f., 794; participle, 1108.

Prefixes: 146; inseparable, 161-3.

Pregnant construction: 525, 548, 584 f., 591-3.

Prepositional adverbs: new ones, 169 f.

Prepositions: double in composition, 160, 165; adverbs, 301; encroach ment on cases, 450-3; accusative with, 491; genitive with, 505; effect of compound preps. on case, 511 f., 542 f.; with ablative, 516 f.; with locative, 524 f.; with instrumental, 534 f.; with dative, 537 f.; phrases, 550 f.; ch. XIII, 553-649; name, 553 f. (some postpositive 553, orig- inal use not with verbs 553, explanation 553 f.); origin of, 554 f. (originally adverbs 554, reason for use of 554, varying history 555); growth in use of, 555-7 (once none 555, still adverbs in Homer 555, decreasing use as adverbs 555 f., Semitic influence in N. T. 556 f., modern Greek 557); in composition with verbs, 557-65 (not the main function 557 f., prep. alone 558, increasing use 558, repetition after verb 559 f., different preposition after verb 560 ff., second preposi tion not necessary 562 f., dropped with second verb 563, intensive or perfective 563f., double compounds 565); repetition and variation of, 565-7 (same prep. with different case 565, repetition with several nouns 566, repetition with the relative 566 f., 721, condensation by variation 567); functions of, with cases, 567-71 (case before prep. 567, notion of dimension 567, original force of the case 567 f., groundmeaning of the prep. 568, oblique cases alone with 568, original freedom 568 f., no adequate division by cases 569, situation in N. T. 569 f.: with one case, with two, with three, one with four, each prep. in a case 570 f.); "proper"

1242 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

prepositions in N. T., 571-636; avna , 571 f.; avnti, , 572-4; avpo, , 574-80 (original significance 575 f., meaning " back " 576 f., "translationHebraism" in fobei/sqai avpo, 577, comparison with evk 577 f., comparison with para, . 578 f., compared with biro 579 f.); dia, , 580-4 (root-idea 580, by twos or between 580 f., passing between or through 581 ff., because of 583 f.); evn├ 584-91 (old use with accusative or locative 584 f., older than eivj 585 f., place 586, time 586 f., among 587, in the case of 587 f., as a dative 588, accompanying circumstance 588, amounting to 589, instrumental use of 589-91); eivj , 591-6 (original static use 591-3, with verbs of motion 593 f., time 594, like a dative 594, aim or purpose 594 f., predicative use 595 f., compared with evpi, , para,, and pro,j 596); evk , 596-600(meaning 596, in composition 596 f., place 597, time 597, separation 597 f., origin or source 598 f., partitive use of 599, evk and evn , 599 f.); bri, 600-5 (ground-meaning 600, in composition 600, frequency in N. T. 600 f., with the accus. 601 f., with the gen. 602-4, with the loc. 604 f., the true dative 605); kata, , 605-9 (root-meaning 605 f., distributive sense 606, in composition 606, with ablative 606 f., with genitive 607, with accusative 607-9); pera, 609-12 (root-meaning 609, in composition 609 f., loss of locative use 610, with genitive 610-2, with accusative 612); para, , 612-6 (significance 612, compared with pro,j 613, in composition 613, with the locative 614, with the ablative 614 f., with the accusative 615 f.); peri, ., 616-20 (root-meaning 617, in composition 617, originally with four cases 617, with the ablative 617 f., with the genitive 618 f., with the accusative 619 f.); pro, , 620-2 (original meaning 620, in composi tion 620 f., cases used with 621, place 621, time 621 f., superiority 622); pro,j , 622-6 (meaning 622 f., in composition 623, originally with five cases 623, with ablative 623 f., with the locative 624, with the accusative 624-6); su,n , 626-8 (meaning 626 f., history 627, in composition 627 f., N. T. usage 628); u`pe,r , 628-33 (meaning 629, in composition 629, with genitive 629 f., with ablative 630-2, with accusative 632 f.); u`po, , 633-6 (meaning 633, in composition 633, cases once used with 634 f., with the accusative 635, with the ablative 635 f.); the "adverbial" or "improper" prepositions, 636 48 ( a[ma 638, a[neu 638, a;ntikruj 638, avnti,pera 638 f., avpe,nanti 639, a;ter 639, a;cri$j% 639, evggu,j 639 f., evkto,j 640, e;mprosqen 640, e;nan─ ti 640, evnanti,on 640, e[neka 641, evnto,j 641, evnw,pion 641 f., e;xw 642, evpa,nw 642, evpe,keina 642, e;sw 642 f e[wj 643, kate,nanti 643, katenw,pion 644, kuklo,─ qen 644, ku,klw| 644, me,son 644, meta─ xu, , 645, me,cri 645, o;pisqen 645, ovpi,sw 645, ovye, 645 f., paraplh,sion 646, parekto,j 646, pe,ran 646, plh,n 646, plhsi,on 646, u`pera,nw 646 f., u`pere,─ keina 647, u`perekperissou/ 647; u`poka,tw , 647, ca,rin 647, cwri,j 647 f.); compound prepositions, 648; prepositional circumlocutions, 648 f. ( me,son├ o;noma├ pros,wpon├ cei,r ); adjectives of comparison with, 661, 667; article with, 766; effect on active voice, 800; with infinitive, 1068-75.

Present tense : 73, 119 f., 123, 145, 150, 203; of -- mi verbs, 311-9; classes of present stems, 350-3 (non-thematic reduplicated 350, non-thematic with - na and - nu 351, simple thematic 351, reduplicated thematic 351, thematic with suffix 351, 351-3, with s dropped 353); relation of aorist to, 841-3; punctiliar (aoristic), 864-70 (specific 865 f., gnomic 866, historical pres

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1243

ent 866-9, futuristic 869 f.); durative (linear) indicative, 879-82 (descriptive 879, progressive 879 f., iterative or customary 880, inchoative or conative 880, historical 880, deliberative 880 f., as perfect 881, perfect as present 881, futuristic 881 f.); durative subj. and opt., 889 f.; durative imperative, 890; durative infinitive, 890 f.; durative participle, 891 f. and 1115-6 (relative time 891, futuristic 891, descriptive 891, conative 892, antecedent time 892, indirect discourse 892, with the article 892, past action still in progress 892, "subsequent" 892, durative future 892).

Principal parts of important verbs in

N. T.: 1212-20.

Proclitics: accent of, 235; rules for accent of, 1211.

Prodiorthosis: 1199.

"Profane Greek": 5, 89.

Prohibition: see imperative, aorist subj., future indicative, infinitive.

Prolepsis : 423.

Pronouns: 226, 234; declension of, 284-93 (idea of 284 f., antiquity of 285, pronominal roots 285 f., classification of 286-93); syntax of, ch. XV, 676-753; personal, 676-84; possessive, 684 f.; intensive and identical, 685-7; reflexive, 687-92; reciprocal, 692 f.; demonstrative, 693-710; relative, 710-35; inter- rogative, 735-41; indefinite, 741-4; alternative or distributive, 744-50; negative, 750-3.

Pronunciation: 71 f., 236-41.

Proper names: abbreviated, 171-3, 184, 205; doubling of consonants in Hebrew and Aramaic, 214 f.; accent of, 235; foreign names, 235 f.; mixed declension of, 263; in third decl., 269 f.; article with, 759 ff., 791, passim.

"Proper" prepositions: 554, 636 f.

Prosw|di,a : 228.

Protasis: see conditional clauses, 1007-27.

Prothetic vowels: 205 f., 1209.

Psilosis: 191, 222-5.

Psychological treatment of grammar: 32.

Ptolemaic: 210, 220, 256, passim.

Pun: 1201.

Punctiliar action: 823 f., 830-79 (aorist 831-64, present 864-70, future 870-9).

Punctuation: discussion of, 241-5 (the paragraphs 241 f., sentences 242 f., words 243 f., editor's prerogative 245).

Purists: 3, 76 ff., 88, 90 f., 160, pas sim.

Purpose: see final clauses.

Q

Qualitative use of anarthrous nouns: see article.

Questions: o[j in direct, 725; 5 in in direct, 725 f.; o[stij , direct 729 f., indirect 730 f.; oi-oj , 731; o[soj , 733; see direct discourse, indirect dis course, interrogative pronouns, interrogative particles, mode; indirect, 1043-6; deliberative, 1046; single, 1175-7; double, 1177; partides in direct, 1175 f.; indirect, 1176 f.

Quotations in O. T.: 206, 242 f.

R

Reciprocal pronouns: inflection of, 292 f.; reflexive as, 690; syntax of, 692 f.

Recitative o[ti : 1027 f.; see direct discourse.

Redundance: see pleonasm.

Reduplication: discussion of, 362-5 (primitive 362, both nouns and verbs 362, in three tenses in verbs 362 f., three methods in 363, in the perfect 363-5).

Reflexive pronouns: inflection of, 287 f.; personal originally so, 680 f., 685; distinctive use, 687 f.; no nominative, 688; indirect, 688; in

1244 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

singular, 688 f.; in plural, 689 f.; article with, 690; in reciprocal sense, 690; with middle voice, 690 f., 811; use of i;dioj , 691 f.; with active voice, 802.

Relative pronouns : inflection of, 290 f .; inverse attraction, 488; attraction to genitive, 512; attraction to ablative, 519 f.; repetition of prepositions with, 566 f.; list in the N. T., 710 f.; name, 711; bond between clauses, 711; o[j , 711-26 (in Homer 711, comparison with other relatives 711 f., with any person 712, gender 712 ff., number 714, case 714-9, absence of antecedent 719 ff., prepositions with antecedent and relative 721, phrases 721 f., pleo- nastic antecedent 722 f., repetition of o[j 723 f., consecutive idea 724, causal 724 f., direct questions 725, indirect questions 725 f., idiom ouvdei,j evstin o[j 726); o[stij 726-31 (varied uses 726, distinction between o[j and o[stij 726 f., indefinite use 727, definite exx. 727 f., =value of o[j 728, case 728 f., number 729, direct questions 729 f., indirect 730 f.); oi-oj , 731 f. (relation to o[j 731, incorporation 731, indirect question 731, number 731, oi-o,n te, evstin 732); o`poi/oj , 732 (qualitative, double office, correlative); o[soj , 732 f. (quantitative, antecedent, attraction, incorporation, repetition, with o;n , indirect question, comparison, adverbial); h`li,koj , 733 f.; o` 734 f.; ti,j as, 737 f.

Relative sentences: originally paratactic, 953; most subordinate clauses relative in origin, 953 f.; usually adjectival, 955 f.; modes in, 955 f.; definite and indefinite, 956 f.; use of a;n in, 957-9; special uses of, 960-2; negatives in, 962; causal, 965 f.; purpose, 989; subfinal, 996; consecutive, 1001.

Relative time: see tense.

Repetition: of substantive, 684; of o[j , 723 f.; of o[soj or, 733.

Result: see consecutive clauses.

Reuchlinian pronunciation: 240.

Revelation: see Apocalypse.

Rhetoric: figures of speech, 1208.

Rhetorical questions : with the ind., 924; with the subj., 930; in Paul, 1198.

Rhythm: metrical passages so printed in W. H., 242; position as showing, 417-23; poetry, 421 f.

Roman Empire and the koinh, : 74 f.

Romans: passim. See Index of Quo-. tations.

Roots: in Sanskrit, 38; discussion of, 144-6; verb-root, 344 f.

Running style: 432 f.

S

Sahidic: 202, passim.

Sanskrit: the discovery of Sanskrit, 10, 36 f., 39 f., 47, 143, 145 f., 246-8; voice in, 798 f., ad libitum.

Second Epistle of Peter: passim. See Index of Quotations.

Second or o declension: 257, 259-63.

Semitic: 37, 88-108, 198, 205, 212, 225, 236, passim. See Aramaic and Hebrew.

Sentence, the: punctuation of, 242 f.; discussion of, ch. X, 390-445; the sentence and syntax, 390; sentence defined, 390-7 (complex conception 390, two essential parts 390 f., onemembered sentence 391, elliptical 391, only predicate 391-3, only subject 393 f., verb not the only predicate 394 f., copula not neces sary 395 f., two radiating foci 396 f., varieties of the simple sentence 397); expansion of the subject, 397-400; expansion of the predicate, 400 f.; subordinate centres in the sentence, 402; concord in person, 402 f.; concord in number, 403-9; concord in gender, 410-3; concord in case, 413-6; position of words in, 417-25; compound sentences, 7; connection in sentences, 427-44

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1245

(single words 427, clauses 428-32, two kinds of style 432 f., parenthesis 433-5, anacoluthon 435-40, oratio variata 440-3, connection between sentences 443, between paragraphs 444, forecasts 444 f.); independent or paratactic, 914-50; subordinate or hypotactic, 950-1049.

Septuagint: influence of Jews in Alexandria, 84; in the vernacular koinh, of Alexandria, 91; Hebraisms in the LXX, 91; influence of the LXX on the N. T., nature of this influence and character of the LXX itself, 96-102; "septuagint-Graecisms" in Luke, 108,118-26,183-92,198-204,208-11,213-27, ad libitum.

Sequence, rules of: see indirect discourse.

Simile : 1206.

Sinaiticus, Codex : spelling of, 179, passim.Singular: 251. See number.

Socrates: 75 f.

Solecisms: in the Apocalypse, 413-6.

Sophocles : see Index of Quotations.

Sources for study of koinh, : see ch. I and koinh,)

Southeast dialects: 211, passim.

Spoken Greek: see vernacular.

Stoic: grammarians, 143; dialectic, 1197.

Style: in Scripture, 87; two kinds of, 432 f.; in the N. T., 116-39, 1194-7. See individual peculiarities.

Sub-final: see final and consecutive.

Subject: essential part of sentence, 390 f.; ellipsis of, 391; only subject used, 393 f.; one of the radialing foci, 396 f.; expansion of the subject, 397-400 (idea-words and form-words 397, concord and government 397 f., group around 398-400, subordinate clause 398, with the article 398, the adverb 398, the adjective 398, the substantive in an oblique case 398, or in apposition 398-400); subject and predicate as to concord, 403-7 (two conflicting principles 403, neuter plural and singular verb 403 f., collective substantives 404 f., singular verb with first subject 405 f., literary plural 406 f.); suspended, 436 f.

Subjective: see genitive case, posses sive pronoun and middle voice.

Subjunctive: origin of form, 320, 5; perfect, 360 f., 907 f.; use of aorist, 848-54; future, 876; present, 889 f.; relation to other modes, 924 ff. (aor. subj. and fut. ind., subj. and imper., subj. and opt.); original significance of, 926-8; threefold usage, 928-35 (futuristic 928 ff., volitive 930-4, deliberative 934f.); as imper., 943; negative with, 1160 f., 1169 f.

Subordinate sentences: see hypo taxis.

Subsequent action in participle: see participle.

Substantives: root-substantives, 145; with suffixes, 150-7 (primitive 150 f., derivative 151-7: from verbs 4, from substantives 154-6, from ad jectives 156 f.); compound, 161-8 (inseparable prefixes, 161 f.; agglu tinative 165-8); declension of, 246 70; number in, 251 f.; gender in substantives, 252-4; with genitive, 495-503; with ablative, 514 f.; with locative, 524; with dative, 536 f.; appositional use of, 651 f.; adjective as, 652-4; agreement of adjec tive with, 654 f.; substantival aspests of infinitive, 1058-79; with inf., 1075 f.; participle as, 1108 f.; negatives with, 1163 f.

Suffixes: 146; comparative without, 663.

Superlative: forms, 278-81; positive as, 660 f.; displaced by comparative 667-9; syntax of, 669-71.

Supplementary: see participle.

Syncope: 203 f.

Synonyms: in Greek words, 175 f.; phrases, 1200 f.

1246 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

Syntax: in the vernacular koinh, , 73 f.; in the N. T., 82 f.; of LXX, 100; part III, 379-1208; meaning of syntax, ch. LX, 379-89 (backwardness in study of 379-81, N. T. limitations 381-3, advance by Delbruck 383 f., province of 384-7, the word 384 f., construction of words and clauses 385 f., historical 386, irregularities 386 f., method of this grammar 387-9, principles 387, original significance 387, form and function 387 f., development 388, context 388 f., translation 389, limits 389); the sentence and syntax, 390.

Syriac versions: passim.

Syrian text ( a -text): 179f., 189, 210f., 214 f., 219, 260, passim.

T

Tarsus: new centre of culture, 67; Paul learning Greek in, 239.

Temporal clauses: kin to relative, 970 f.; conjunctions meaning "when," 971-4; group meaning "until," 974-7; some nominal and prepositional phrases, 977 f.; use of inf., 978 f., 1091 f.; participle, 979, 1125 f.

Tenses: of - mi . verbs in the N. T., 307-20; conjugation of, 343-68 (term tense 343 f., confusion in names 344, verb-root 344 f., aorist 345-50, present 350-3, future 353-7, perfect 359-62, reduplication 362-5, augment 365-8); infinitive, 369 f., 1080-2; participle, 373 ff., 1111-9; periphrastic tenses in N. T., 374-6; syntax of, ch. XVIII, 821-910; complexity of subject, 821-30 (Greek and Germanic tenses 821, influence of Latin on Greek grammarians 822, Hebrew influence 822, gradual growth of Greek tenses 822, "Aktionsart" of the verb-stem 823, three kinds of action 824, time-element 824 f., faulty nomenclature 825, analytic tendency (periphrasis) 826, "perfective " use of prepositions 826-8, Aktionsart with each tense 828f., interchange of tenses 829 f.); punctiliar action, 830-79 (aorist 830-64, present 864-70, future 870-9); durative (linear), 879-92 (indicative, present, imperfect, future 879-89, subj. and opt. 889 f., imperative 890, infinitive 890 f., participle 891 f.); perfected state, 892-910 (idea of perfect 892-4, indicative, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect 892-907, subj. and opt. 907 f., imperative 908, infinitive 908, participle 909 f.); tenses of im perative, 950; change in ind. discourse, 1029 f.

Textual criticism: passim.

Textus receptus: 199, 213, 217, pas- sim.

Thematic vowel: see present tense.

Thessalian: 192, 202, passim.

Third declension: 258, 263-9.

Thucydides: 265, passim. See Index of Quotations.

Time: cases used, 460-527 f., (nom. 460, acc. 469-71, gen. 495, locative 522 f., instrumental 527 f.); dia, , 580 ff.; evn , 586 f.; eivj , 594; evk , 597; pro, , 621 f.; element in tense, 824 f., 894; temporal clauses, 970-9; timelessness of participle, 1111.

Transitive verbs: 330 f.; with. accusative, 471-7; with genitive, etc., 506 ff.; transitiveness and voice, 797 f., 799 f., 806, 815 f.

Translation Greek: in the LXX and portions of Gospels and Acts, 89 f., 91 f., 93, 100 ff.

Transliteration of Semitic words: 225.

U

Uncials: 179-81, 186, 189, 192 f., 195, 200, 202, ad libitum.

Uncontracted vowels: see contrac tion.

Unfulfilled condition: see conditional sentences.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1247

Unification of Greek dialects in the koinh, : 53-4; finally complete, 67.

Universal language: the Greek, 49 f.; Panhellenic, 49; origin of, 53 f.; march towards universalism, 54; a real world-speech, 54-56; limitations in, 64.

V

Vase-inscriptions: see inscriptions.

Vaticanus, Codex: 179, passim.

Verbal adjectives: in - te,oj and - toj , 157 f.; relation to participles, 372 f.; syntax of verbals in - toj and - te,oj , 1095-7.

Verbal nouns: eh. XX, 1050-1141; kinship between infinitive and participle, 1050 f.; the infinitive, 1051-95; the participle, 1098-1141.

Verbs : root-verbs, 145; with formative suffixes, 146-50 (primitive verbs 146 f., secondary verbs 147-50); compound verbs, 161-5 (with inseparable prefixes 161 f., agglutination or juxtaposition 163-5); conjugation of, 303-76 (difficulty of the subject 303, nature of the verb, relation to noun 303 f., meaning of 304, pure and hybrid 304, survival of - mi verbs, cross division 306, oldest verbs 306, gradual disappearance 306, second aorists 307-11, presents 311-9, perfects 319 f., modes 320-30, voices 330-43, tenses 343-68, infinitive 368-71, participle 371-6); accusative with, 471-86; genitive with, 505-11; ablative with, 517-20; with locative, 523 f.; instrumental with, 528-32; dative with, 538-43; adverbial use, 551 f.; compounded with prepositions, 557-65; syntax of voice, ch. XVII, 797-820; syntax of tense, 821-910: syntax of mode, 911-1049; inf. with, 1077 f.; verbal aspects of inf., 1079-95; verbal aspects of participle, 1110-41; list of important verbs in N. T., 1212-20; of hindering, 1061,1089,1094.

Vernacular: 17 f., 22 f., 34 ff., 44; "vulgar " Greek, 50; vernacular koinh, , 60-73; vernacular Attic, 60-2; N. T. chiefly in the vernacular koinh, , 76-83; vernacular writers in the N. T., 76; dialect-coloured, 178 f.; indifferent to hiatus, 207; ad li- bitum.

Verner's law: 11, footnote.

Verses: see rhythm.

Vocabulary: 65 f.; in the vernacular koinh, , 72, 80-3, 87, passim.

Vocative: 247; in first declension, 256; in second declension, 261; in third decl., 264; nominative form, 264, 461; nature of, 461; various devices 462 f.; use of w= , 463 f.; adjectives with, 464; apposition to, 464; in predicate, 464 f.; article with, 465 f.

Voice: conjugation of, 330-43 (transitive and intransitive 330 f., names of voices 331, relative age of 332, "deponent " 332 f., passive supplanting middle 333 f., personal endings 335, cross divisions 335, active endings 335-9, middle endings 339 f., passive endings 340 f., contract verbs 341-3); with infinitive, 369 f., 1079 f.; with participle, 373 f., 1110 f.; syntax of, ch. XVII, 797-820; point of view, 797-9 (distinction between voice and transitiveness 797 f., meaning of voice 798, names of the voices 798, his tory of 798, help from Sanskrit 798 f., defective verbs 799); syntax of active, 799-803; middle, 803-14; passive, 814-20.

Volitive: future, 874 f.; subj., 930-4; opt., 939 f.

Vowels: original of vowel symbols, 178; the original Greek vowels, 181 f.; vowel changes, 181-203 (changes with a 182-6, with e 186 91, with h 191-5, with i 195-9, with o 199-201, with u 201 f.; with w 202 f.); contraction and syncope, 203 f.; diphthongs and diaeresis, 204 f.; aphaeresis and prothetic vowels, 205 f.; elision, 206-8; crasis,

1248 A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT

208 f.; shortening stem-vowels, 230 f.

Vulgate: passim.

W

Wales bilingualism in: in 30.

Weltsprache: 44 f., 49-56, or 64, 79. passim. See universal or koinh,

Western text ( d -text): 180, 214, 216, 218 f., 253, 260, ad libitum.

Wish: mode and tense in impossible wishes, 923; ways of expressing, 1003 f.

Word-formation: see formation of words.

Words: number in the N. T., 81, 87, 115; relation of words in origin, 145; with formative suffixes, 60; composita, 160-71; history of, 173 f.; kinship of Greek, 174 f.; contrasts in, 175 f.; punctuation of, 243 f.; idea-words and form-words, 397; position of; in sentence, 417-25; connection between, 427; word relations, 449; glory of the words of the N. T., 1207 f.

World-language: see koinh, .

X

Xenophon, forerunner of the koinh , 55.

Z

Zeugma: 1200 f.